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Shares: Securities, issued by joint stock companies, confirming that their owner actually owns a part of the company. Shares entitle their owner to receiving a dividend, to vote in the General Assembly of the Board of Shareholders. All companies which are publically traded are joint ventures but they do not trade all of their shares, but they are usually trading with those shares which are not property of the company’s main owner, the so called free float.
Shareholder: Owner of shares in a joint stock company
Sheep: An investor who does not have a trading strategy. He mainly trusts his emotions and the others’ opinion. Usually such investors undertake ill-judged and imprecise investments on the market. The term “sheep” comes from the resemblance with the sheep when following the shepherd.
Subprime market: A credit market which is dedicated to people with a short and questionable credit history. This market may include second-class mortgage loans, as well as loans for buying a car, credit cards and different products, which are withdrawn from people with not very stable incomes. This naturally leads to higher level of interest rates compared to those on the traditional markets. Such markets bring additional revenue to the investors, but they are also quite riskier than the other markets. The security and the stability on such markets heavily depend on the overall economy environment and situation. As long as the buyers on this market receive decent level of income they can afford to pay for their loans. As soon as the economic environment gets worse, though, like losing job, restrictions into the salary, etc., the situation on this market gets much worse. The buyers cannot afford to pay any longer and the investors are reluctant to take more risks.
Special Saturday night: A surprising attempt for acquiring. It is related to the fact that many of these attempts happen during the weekend so that the excessive publicity is avoided.
Sleeping beauty: A company which is ideal for acquiring but up until now it has not received any offers or enquiries. Such company is called “sleeping beauty” because it has high level of cash, underestimated market value and huge potential, but it is still waiting for its prince to appear.
Standard of deferred payments: A function of the money, by which the goods and services are not paid by the time of the purchase, but through a delayed or deferred payment. A typical example of this function is the leasing.
Settlement: Payment agreements, returning of owed amounts.
Securities: A common term including assets, debentures and other financial tools traded on the financial markets.
Sale costs: The expenses related to brokers’ and dealers’ commission, regulating agencies’ fees, transfer related fees and and obligations.
Subsidiary: A company whose voting stock is more than 50% controlled by another company, usually referred to as the parent company.
Specimen: A document which certifies the signatures of the persons who have the right to represent a certain entity. In the specimen there is also a description of the persons’ position, the extent of their representation power and the method of contract signing by these persons.
Stocks: Securities issued by joint stock companies, certifying the participation of their owner in the capital of the joint stock company. They give the right for receiving a dividend, for voting in the shareholders’ meetings and for liquidation proceeds.
Support level: A price level which has been tested by the price and which cannot by passed. The support levels are usually met when having descending movement – these are the levels at which a lot of buyers can appear.
Social insurance risks: Certain events which have led to a decrease or total loss of the labor income of the insured person.
Systematic violation: A violation is called systematic violation when three or more than three administrative violations of the law are committed for a period of one year.
State subsidies: Transfers from the state budget to the social security at the expense of the tax sources.
State reserve: Stocks of the most important materials, fuel, goods and others needed in case of disasters, war and others.
Share capital: Funds raised by issuing shares in return for cash or other considerations. The amount of share capital a company has can change over time because each time a business sells new shares to the public in exchange for cash, the amount of share capital will increase.
Subcontractor: An individual or company hired by a general or prime contractor to perform a specific task as part of the overall project.
Securitization: A process in which the financial assets are being transformed in securities.